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Mercure, Evelyne; Kushnerenko, Elena; Goldberg, Laura; Bowden-Howl, Harriet; Coulson, Kimberley; Johnson, Mark H; MacSweeney, Mairéad – Developmental Science, 2019
Infants as young as 2 months can integrate audio and visual aspects of speech articulation. A shift of attention from the eyes towards the mouth of talking faces occurs around 6 months of age in monolingual infants. However, it is unknown whether this pattern of attention during audiovisual speech processing is influenced by speech and language…
Descriptors: Infants, Bilingualism, Auditory Stimuli, Visual Stimuli
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Hulme, Charles; Zhou, Lulin; Tong, Xiuli; Lervåg, Arne; Burgoyne, Kelly – Developmental Science, 2019
This study investigates the longitudinal predictors of the development of Chinese word reading skills and potential bidirectional relationships between Chinese word reading and oral language skills. We examine, in a 2-year longitudinal study, a wide range of theoretically important predictors (phonological awareness, tone awareness, morphological…
Descriptors: Mandarin Chinese, Longitudinal Studies, Predictor Variables, Oral Language
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LaTourrette, Alexander; Waxman, Sandra R. – Developmental Science, 2019
There is considerable evidence that labeling supports infants' object categorization. Yet in daily life, most of the category exemplars that infants encounter will remain unlabeled. Inspired by recent evidence from machine learning, we propose that infants successfully exploit this sparsely labeled input through "semi-supervised…
Descriptors: Naming, Classification, Identification, Infants
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Piccolo, Luciane R.; Merz, Emily C.; Noble, Kimberly G. – Developmental Science, 2019
A positive school climate has been found to support mental and physical health, academic achievement and social adjustment among youth. However, links between school climate and brain structure have not been investigated to date. In this study, we investigated whether school climate was associated with executive function (EF) and brain structure…
Descriptors: Educational Environment, Correlation, Brain, Executive Function
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Brinchmann, Ellen Irén; Braeken, Johan; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas – Developmental Science, 2019
Previous studies of individual differences have revealed strong correlations between children's vocabulary and grammatical abilities, and these data have been used to support theoretical accounts positing direct developmental relations between these two areas of language. However, between-person differences do not necessarily reflect…
Descriptors: Vocabulary, Grammar, Language Acquisition, Young Children
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Hahn, Michael; Joechner, Ann-Kathrin; Roell, Judith; Schabus, Manuel; Heib, Dominik P. J.; Gruber, Georg; Peigneux, Philippe; Hoedlmoser, Kerstin – Developmental Science, 2019
Sleep spindles are related to sleep-dependent memory consolidation and general cognitive abilities. However, they undergo drastic maturational changes during adolescence. Here we used a longitudinal approach (across 7 years) to explore whether developmental changes in sleep spindle density can explain individual differences in sleep-dependent…
Descriptors: Sleep, Child Development, Memory, Cognitive Ability
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Bergelson, Elika; Casillas, Marisa; Soderstrom, Melanie; Seidl, Amanda; Warlaumont, Anne S.; Amatuni, Andrei – Developmental Science, 2019
A range of demographic variables influences how much speech young children hear. However, because studies have used vastly different sampling methods, quantitative comparison of interlocking demographic effects has been nearly impossible, across or within studies. We harnessed a unique collection of existing naturalistic, day-long recordings from…
Descriptors: Infants, Toddlers, Speech Communication, Age Differences
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Yu, Chen; Suanda, Sumarga H.; Smith, Linda B. – Developmental Science, 2019
Vocabulary differences early in development are highly predictive of later language learning as well as achievement in school. Early word learning emerges in the context of tightly coupled social interactions between the early learner and a mature partner. In the present study, we develop and apply a novel paradigm--dual head-mounted eye…
Descriptors: Infants, Infant Behavior, Attention Control, Eye Movements
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Fröhlich, Marlen; Wittig, Roman M.; Pika, Simone – Developmental Science, 2019
The onset of intentional communication in children's first year of life represents a major milestone in human cognitive development. Similarly, it is well established that our closest living relatives, the great apes, communicate with signals characterized by at least first-order intentionality. Despite the well-documented influence of…
Descriptors: Animals, Development, Communication Strategies, Infants
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Bakker, Merel; Torbeyns, Joke; Wijns, Nore; Verschaffel, Lieven; De Smedt, Bert – Developmental Science, 2019
Numerical competencies acquired in preschool are foundational and predictive for children's later mathematical development. It remains to be determined whether there are gender differences in these early numerical competencies which could explain the often-reported gender differences in later mathematics and STEM-related abilities. Using a…
Descriptors: Gender Differences, Preschool Children, Preschool Education, Numeracy
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Snowling, Margaret J.; Lervåg, Arne; Nash, Hannah M.; Hulme, Charles – Developmental Science, 2019
Speech perception deficits are commonly reported in dyslexia but longitudinal evidence that poor speech perception compromises learning to read is scant. We assessed the hypothesis that phonological skills, specifically phoneme awareness and RAN, mediate the relationship between speech perception and reading. We assessed longitudinal predictive…
Descriptors: Speech Communication, Dyslexia, Phonology, Phonemic Awareness
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Broadbent, Hannah J.; Osborne, Tamsin; Mareschal, Denis; Kirkham, Natasha Z. – Developmental Science, 2019
Multisensory tools are commonly employed within educational settings (e.g. Carter & Stephenson, 2012), and there is a growing body of literature advocating the benefits of presenting children with multisensory information over unisensory cues for learning (Baker & Jordan, 2015; Jordan & Baker, 2011). This is even the case when the…
Descriptors: Multisensory Learning, Teaching Methods, Cues, Retention (Psychology)
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Murray, Aja Louise; Booth, Tom; Eisner, Manuel; Auyeung, Bonnie; Murray, George; Ribeaud, Denis – Developmental Science, 2019
Previous studies have hinted at sex differences in developmental trajectories in ADHD symptoms; however, little is known about the nature or cause of these differences and their implications for clinical practice. We used growth mixture modelling in a community-ascertained cohort of n = 1,571 participants to study sex differences in ADHD symptom…
Descriptors: Symptoms (Individual Disorders), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Gender Differences, Conceptual Tempo
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Aldeman, Chad – Education Next, 2019
Los Angeles Unified, the second-largest school district in the country, is on pace to spend more than half of its annual budget on retirement and health-care costs by the year 2031. By then, it is projected to spend 22.4 percent of its budget on pensions and 28.4 on health-care benefits for current and former workers. The cost of health care is…
Descriptors: School Districts, Teacher Employment Benefits, Health Services, Public Education
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Reid, Gwendolynne – Written Communication, 2019
Drawing on a text-based ethnography of digital writing in a biology laboratory, this article examines the text trajectory of a scientific manuscript and a scientific team's related writing for public audiences, including for citizen scientists. Using data drawn from texts, observations, interviews, and related artifacts, the author examines how…
Descriptors: Science Instruction, Semiotics, Scientists, Ethnography
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