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ERIC Number: EJ995837
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013-Mar
Pages: 10
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 39
ISSN: ISSN-1534-5084
There Is a World outside of Experimental Designs: Using Twins to Investigate Causation
Hart, Sara A.; Taylor, Jeanette; Schatschneider, Christopher
Assessment for Effective Intervention, v38 n2 p117-126 Mar 2013
This study introduces a co-twin control method commonly used in the medical literature but not often within educational research. This method allows for a comparison of twins discordant for an "exposure," approximating alternative outcomes in the counterfactual model. Example analyses use data drawn from the Florida Twin Project on Reading to determine whether exposure to "teacher quality," measured by growth in oral reading fluency (ORF) scores of classmates, causally affects ORF performance of twins in the subsequent years. The analysis highlights PROC MIXED in SAS, including a novel expansion to allow for the nested data. Results from 2,788 twins suggested that being in classrooms with lower teacher quality in first grade leads to lower ORF scores in second and third grade with little indication of possible genetic or environmental confounding. (Contains 2 tables and 2 figures.)
SAGE Publications and Hammill Institute on Disabilities. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Florida