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ERIC Number: EJ995332
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012
Pages: 5
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-1066-2847
Title IX at 40
Kilman, Carrie
Teaching Tolerance, n42 p29-33 Fall 2012
When Kristen Galles was a 7th grader in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, she wanted to enroll in shop class. But there was a problem. At Harding Junior High School, only boys could do that. It is just how things were in 1976, which might sound absurd to 7th graders today. It was a time when girls were discouraged from taking math and science classes, when quotas limited female college enrollment, when pregnant students were not allowed to stay in school, and when athletic opportunities for girls were almost nonexistent. All that has changed thanks to Title IX, the federal statute that mandates gender equity in schools receiving federal funds. In the early 1990s, Galles became the first person to file--and successfully settle--a Title IX challenge against a high school. Today, Galles is one of the most outspoken Title IX legal advocates in the nation. This year, Title IX turned 40, and Galles recently joined more than 300 legal scholars, educators and historians in Ann Arbor, Michigan, to honor the law's milestones and to reflect on the challenges that lay ahead. As they look to the future, these experts paint a cautiously optimistic picture. This 1972 law was never just about sports--it radically changed everything about education for girls and women.
Southern Poverty Law Center. 400 Washington Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36104. Tel: 334-956-8200; Fax: 334-956-8484; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Iowa; Michigan
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: Education Amendments 1972; Title IX Education Amendments 1972