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ERIC Number: EJ991877
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012-Sep
Pages: 7
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1040-3590
Validation of the Chinese Version of the Life Orientation Test with a Robust Weighted Least Squares Approach
Li, Cheng-Hsien
Psychological Assessment, v24 n3 p770-776 Sep 2012
Of the several measures of optimism presently available in the literature, the Life Orientation Test (LOT; Scheier & Carver, 1985) has been the most widely used in empirical research. This article explores, confirms, and cross-validates the factor structure of the Chinese version of the LOT with ordinal data by using robust weighted least squares (robust WLS) estimation within the Taiwanese cultural context. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses using 3 different samples (N[subscript total] = 1,119) show that the factor structure of the Chinese version of the LOT is better conceptualized as a correlated 2-factor model than a single-factor model. The composite reliability was 0.7 for the "disagreement on optimism" factor and 0.74 for the "agreement on optimism" factor. In addition, comparison results of the 2 estimators using empirical data and simulation data suggest that robust WLS is less biased than maximum likelihood (ML) for estimating factor loadings and interfactor correlations in the factor analytic model of the Chinese version of the LOT. (Contains 2 tables and 1 footnote.)
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Taiwan