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ERIC Number: EJ985058
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012-Nov
Pages: 14
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 58
ISSN: ISSN-0004-9441
Multiple Goals in a Hong Kong Chinese Educational Context: An Investigation of Developmental Trends and Learning Outcomes
Watkins, David; Hattie, John
Australian Journal of Education, v56 n3 p273-286 Nov 2012
Social goals have also been proposed as important additions to mastery and performance goals in educational contexts, particularly in non-Western cultures but no study has yet tested the possibility that such goals can also combine with mastery and performance goals leading to superior learning outcomes. Longitudinal studies are also rare in this area. The effect of changing motivational groups has also seldom been examined. This study examines the academic achievement, learning strategies and self-attributes at two points of time of students from multiple motivational groups: mastery, performance and social. The findings demonstrate that the usual grouping of mastery and performance is incomplete as the impact of goals on achievement cannot be properly understood unless social goals are included, although about a third of students had none of these goals at all. Those in the higher groups for all three goals had higher sense of purpose, but only those in high mastery and performance (and thus not social) had a higher sense of self-reliance and intellectual self. It is likely that the various dimensions of social goals may be related importantly to various desirable outcomes. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)
Australian Council for Educational Research. 19 Prospect Hill Road, Camberwell, VIC 3124, Australia. Tel: +61-3-9277-5447; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Hong Kong