ERIC Number: EJ978496
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012-Apr
Reference Count: 6
Test Review: Hammill, D. D., Pearson, N. A., & Weiderholt, J. L. (2009). "Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2)." Austin, TX: PRO-ED
Delen, Erhan; Kaya, Fatih; Ritter, Nicola L.
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, v30 n2 p209-213 Apr 2012
This article presents a review of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2), a nonverbal intelligence test created to assess reasoning and problem solving of children and adults. The goal of the CTONI-2 is to minimize the influence of language ability on intelligence test scores. Oral or pantomime instructions can be used during test administration, depending on whether the examiner wants to reduce or eliminate the use of language. The authors used ideas drawn from other nonverbal intelligence tests to develop the CTONI-2, and the test does not focus on any one theory of intelligence. The CTONI-2 is an appropriate test for individuals whose scores on other intelligence tests might be influenced by language or motor skills. The test purports to measure three cognitive abilities: (1) analogical thinking; (2) categorical formulation; and (3) sequential reasoning. The CTONI-2 has several strengths. The test decreases potential language and motor ability effects on general intelligence scores that are often confounded on verbal intelligence tests. It is important to note that the test does not consider the examinee's information-processing speed given that the test is untimed. The manual provides verbal and pantomime instructions. In addition, the authors provide oral instructions in common non-English languages (e.g., Spanish, simplified Chinese, and French). The test is easy to administer and score. The authors provide age equivalents but appropriately caution their use in interpretation. The administration takes a short amount of time compared with other intelligence tests. The authors also addressed floor effects from the previous version by replacing items. The authors added color to pictures that were previously sketched, which makes the items more appealing and clarifies pictures. Although there are many strengths, the CTONI-2 does have its weaknesses. One is the use of oral instructions with 95% of the participants in the standardization sample, and only 5% of the participants were administered the test using pantomime instructions. Although the authors assert that the test is appropriate for non-English speakers and provide alternative-language oral instructions, the authors did not administer the test using non-English verbal instructions. Each picture book has two tests in both sides. During the test, the examinee may be distracted by the other side of the book. Overall, the CTONI-2 is a user-friendly nonverbal intelligence test that diminishes the effects of language and motor abilities. Researchers are encouraged to use the CTONI-2 to assess general intelligence, particularly with individuals whose performance may be confounded by language or physical impairments.
Descriptors: Intelligence Tests, Problem Solving, Children, Adults, Language Proficiency, Visual Stimuli, Testing, Information Processing, Reliability, Validity, Oral Language, Public Schools, Elementary Secondary Education
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: North Dakota; Texas