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ERIC Number: EJ978264
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012
Pages: 8
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 68
ISSN: ISSN-1932-5037
The March of Dimes and Polio: Lessons in Vaccine Advocacy for Health Educators
Larsen, Dawn
American Journal of Health Education, v43 n1 p47-54 Jan-Feb 2012
The polio vaccine became available in 1955, due almost entirely to the efforts of the March of Dimes. In 1921, Franklin Roosevelt gave a public face to polio and mounted a campaign to prevent it, establishing the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis in 1938. During the Depression, U.S. citizens were asked to contribute one dime. Entertainer Eddie Cantor suggested the name the March of Dimes, paraphrasing the popular newsreel "The March of Time." Jonas Salk advocated a killed-virus vaccine while Albert Sabin proposed a live-virus vaccine. Both competed for both recognition and funding from the March of Dimes. In 1955 Salk's vaccine was adopted, nationwide vaccination programs were implemented, and polio rates dropped by 80 percent. In 1961, Sabin's vaccine, endorsed by the American Medical Association, became the vaccine of choice. The World Health Assembly advocated polio eradication by the year 2000. By 2004 eradication efforts were threatened by allegations linking vaccines to chronic diseases. Immunization dropped and polio resurfaced in the U.S., Australia, Africa and Russia. Research linking vaccines to chronic disease was discredited, but vaccine opponents remain active. Health educators are well positioned to mitigate damage caused by the anti-vaccine movement and address barriers to immunization efforts.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Africa; Australia; New York; Pennsylvania; Russia; Texas; United States; Washington