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ERIC Number: EJ976813
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012
Pages: 2
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 16
ISSN: ISSN-0164-775X
The Ninth Circuit's Recent Ruling: RTI?
Zirkel, Perry A.
Communique, v40 n5 p26-27 Jan-Feb 2012
Response to intervention (RTI) is a major current issue at the intersection of general and special education, with the school psychologists in their usual central position. The literature is replete with scholarly and practical sources on RTI, but the legal sources are limited. A few articles provide systematic coverage of the relevant provisions of the IDEA and related state laws. However, the sources specific to litigation tend to confuse RTI with general education interventions, such as school support teams, that predate and do not equate to RTI. During one semester, the author asked the students to find court decisions that specifically address RTI as an issue. The only case that arguably fit was "Michael P." v. "State of Hawaii Department of Education" (2011). This article examines this published appellate court decision.
National Association of School Psychologists. 4340 East West Highway Suite 402, Bethesda, MD 20814. Tel: 301-657-0270; Fax: 301-657-0275; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act