ERIC Number: EJ974015
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012
Abstractor: As Provided
Seeing Deep Structure from the Interactions of Surface Features
Chi, Michelene T. H.; VanLehn, Kurt A.
Educational Psychologist, v47 n3 p177-188 2012
Transfer is typically thought of as requiring individuals to "see" what is the same in the deep structure between a new target problem and a previously encountered source problem, even though the surface features may be dissimilar. We propose that experts can "see" the deep structure by considering the first-order interactions of the explicit surface features and the second-order relationships between the first-order cues. Based on this speculative hypothesis, we propose a domain-specific bottom-up instructional approach that teaches students explicitly to focus on deriving the first-order interactions cues and noticing the second-order relationships among the first-order interaction cues. To do so, researchers and instructional designers need to first extract from experienced solvers or experts how they derive such first-order cues. Transfer is assumed to be based on the similarities in the second-order relationships, which are familiar everyday relationships such as equal to, greater than, and so forth.
Descriptors: Expertise, Transfer of Training, Teaching Methods, Instructional Design, Technical Writing, Cues, Problem Solving, Algebra, College Students, Graduate Students, Mathematics Education, Cognitive Processes
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Higher Education; Two Year Colleges
Authoring Institution: N/A
IES Funded: Yes
Grant or Contract Numbers: R305A110811