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ERIC Number: EJ971248
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012
Pages: 20
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 50
ISSN: ISSN-1710-2146
Inclusive Education Reform in Primary Schools of Bangladesh: Leadership Challenges and Possible Strategies to Address the Challenges
Mullick, Jahirul; Deppeler, Joanne; Sharma, Umesh
International Journal of Whole Schooling, v8 n1 p1-20 2012
Inclusive education (IE) is at an early stage of development in Bangladesh. In response to international policies and declarations over the past two decades (UNESCO, 1990; UNSCO, 1994, UNESCO, 2000) IE reform in Bangladesh has enacted a number of national policies and developed several professional development initiatives. This paper reports on the challenges identified by school leaders in attempting to implement IE policies in ten regular primary schools in Bangladesh. Interview data were collected from teachers, head teachers, members of school management committees and sub-district education officers. Data were analyzed using a general inductive thematic analysis procedure. The challenges identified by the participants included lack of authority, students' lack of acceptance, non-supportive views of parents and community, teachers' resistance, limited professional development, limited resources, and physical environment. School leaders also suggested strategies to address the identified challenges that included making local authority active, increasing resources and valuing diversity.
Whole Schooling Consortium. Available from: Concordia University College of Alberta. 7128 Ada Boulevard, Edmonton, AB T5B 4E4, Canada. e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Bangladesh