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ERIC Number: EJ969640
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012-Jun
Pages: 21
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 49
ISSN: ISSN-0013-5984
Effects of Teacher-Student Ratio in Response to Intervention Approaches
Schwartz, Robert M.; Schmitt, Maribeth C.; Lose, Mary K.
Elementary School Journal, v112 n4 p547-567 Jun 2012
This study used a randomized experimental design to examine the relationship between teacher-student ratio and literacy learning outcomes for experienced intervention teachers working with the most at-risk first-grade students. Eighty-five Reading Recovery teachers, working with 170 students, each taught in a 1:1 and a small-group instructional format with teacher-student ratios of 1:2, 1:3, or 1:5. The at-risk students were assessed at pretest and posttest with the six subtests of "An Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement" and the Slosson Oral Reading Test-Revised (SORT-R). The 1:1 instruction yielded significantly higher outcomes than the combined small-group conditions on 8 of the 9 measures. The small group conditions did not differ significantly from one another, but a trend analysis indicated a reduction of literacy performance as group size increased. Implications are discussed for a comprehensive Response to Intervention approach to optimize literacy outcomes and reduce achievement gaps for struggling beginning readers. (Contains 2 figures and 6 tables.)
University of Chicago Press. Journals Division, P.O. Box 37005, Chicago, IL 60637. Tel: 877-705-1878; Tel: 773-753-3347; Fax: 877-705-1879; Fax: 773-753-0811; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 1
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A