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ERIC Number: EJ967459
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2007-May
Pages: 11
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1553-9318
Intensifying Reading Instruction for Students within a Three-Tier Model: Standard-Protocol and Problem Solving Approaches within a Response-to-Intervention (RTI) System
Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.; Ruby, Susan F.; Martella, Ronald C.
TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, v3 n5 Article 2 May 2007
Response to Intervention (RTI) provides a challenge for schools to deliver appropriate and scientifically validated reading instruction to all students through a three-tier model. While many educators recognize the need for a strong core-reading program (Tier 1), interventions for Tier 2 and Tier 3 students remain more difficult to implement. We provide a clear example of how one empirically supported program was implemented within a three-tier model for K-3 students. Our example highlights the efficiency and effectiveness of a standard-protocol approach with problem solving. Effect sizes for K-2 students across the three tiers ranged from 0.50 to 3.96 on Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) measures; effect size improvements on the Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) ranged from 0.72 to 3.37 for third-grade students. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)
Council for Exceptional Children. 1110 North Glebe Road Suite 300, Arlington, VA 22201. Tel: 888-232-7733; Fax: 703-264-9494; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Early Childhood Education; Elementary Education; Grade 1; Grade 2; Grade 3; Kindergarten; Primary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)