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ERIC Number: EJ963693
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011-Jun
Pages: 24
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 114
ISSN: ISSN-0013-5984
Response to Intervention in Literacy: Problems and Possibilities
Johnston, Peter H.
Elementary School Journal, v111 n4 p511-534 Jun 2011
Evidence suggests that it is possible to substantially reduce the number of children classified as learning disabled in literacy. The 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act opens opportunities to do so through Response to Intervention (RTI). This article argues that institutional histories, structures, and professional belief systems are leading to patterns of implementation that emphasize the need to identify individuals with disabilities rather than reducing the need for such identification. Rapidly becoming the default, these approaches to RTI do not fully support the aspiration of the law. This article documents the beliefs, assumptions, institutional structures, and divisions of expertise that have led to and sustain this focus on identification. It also explores a contrasting frame emphasizing instruction and prevention and the associated views of literacy teaching and learning. Finally, the law's requirement of "research-based" literacy instruction is examined and a way forward proposed.
University of Chicago Press. Journals Division, P.O. Box 37005, Chicago, IL 60637. Tel: 877-705-1878; Tel: 773-753-3347; Fax: 877-705-1879; Fax: 773-753-0811; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act