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ERIC Number: EJ963570
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012
Pages: 4
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 14
ISSN: ISSN-0022-2194
Policy and Practice Considerations for Response to Intervention: Reflections and Commentary
Ikeda, Martin J.
Journal of Learning Disabilities, v45 n3 p274-277 May-Jun 2012
The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHCA) was legislated in 1975 in part to provide funding to states, parent centers, and research centers, for supporting access to public education for students with disabilities. In 1975, the intent of EHCA was to find children with disabilities and ensure that children were evaluated, identified, and provided services. On the provision of services prong of EHCA, states adopted the best of what was known at that time: pull-out, label-driven service delivery. Children with disabilities received remedial services and often were excluded from the general curriculum. As EHCA was implemented, lessons were learned. Subsequent reauthorizations leading up to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) focused on macro-level practices such as participating in the general curriculum, large-scale assessment, state and subrecipient accountability on compliance and performance measures. In addition, subsequent reauthorizations addressed micro-level issues such as identification and placement. Response to intervention (RTI) was included in IDEA in the 2004 reauthorization as one of these micro-level changes. RTI evolved out of a paradigm in which assessment data were used to support instructional interventions rather than diagnose disabilities. Implementation of EHCA and IDEA has informed the field of several "musts" on policy and practice. Students suspected of having disabilities must be evaluated, but evaluations must offer protections from unnecessary testing. Students who are eligible for services must receive services they need, in the least restrictive environment. In this article, the author summarizes his impressions of how well (or not) the articles in this issue address evaluation and identification protections in IDEA and service provision for students with disabilities.
SAGE Publications and Hammill Institute on Disabilities. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Opinion Papers
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: Education for All Handicapped Children Act; Individuals with Disabilities Education Act