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ERIC Number: EJ963547
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012-Jun
Pages: 16
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 24
ISSN: ISSN-1098-2140
Using Targeting Outcomes of Programs as a Framework to Target Photographic Events in Nonformal Educational Programs
Rockwell, S. Kay; Albrecht, Julie A.; Nugent, Gwen C.; Kunz, Gina M.
American Journal of Evaluation, v33 n2 p179-194 Jun 2012
Targeting Outcomes of Programs (TOP) is a seven-step hierarchical programming model in which the program development and performance sides are mirror images of each other. It served as a framework to identify a simple method for targeting photographic events in nonformal education programs, indicating why, when, and how photographs would be useful to inform other evaluation strategies. In two case studies, photographs enhanced the formative story of a geoscience project being developed and tested, and contributed to the outcome narrative of a 10-year partnership project between two universities. In both cases, TOP proved to be an efficient and easy-to-use framework. Using TOP in this fashion has the potential to help evaluators address challenges posed by the subjectivity of photography and possible biases of the photographer in the research process. (Contains 3 figures, 1 table, and 7 photos.)
SAGE Publications. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Nebraska; Tajikistan