NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ963047
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012
Pages: 15
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 28
ISSN: ISSN-1524-8372
Young Children Are Not Underconfident with Practice: The Benefit of Ignoring a Fallible Memory Heuristic
Lipko, Amanda R.; Dunlosky, John; Lipowski, Stacy L.; Merriman, William E.
Journal of Cognition and Development, v13 n2 p174-188 2012
In this study the authors investigated whether children demonstrated the "underconfidence-with-practice" (UWP) effect. This effect is a highly robust metacognitive illusion in which adults become underconfident in their memory performance when asked to predict their memory for the same items across multiple study-test trials. One explanation for such underconfidence is the result of adults basing their predictions of future performance on how well they performed on the immediately previous trial and not adjusting their predictions upward for new learning. By contrast, previous research has demonstrated that young children's predictions are influenced minimally by their past performance. Thus, if using this memory-for-past-test heuristic is a major contributor to the UWP effect, young children may not demonstrate it. In two experiments, children were asked to predict their recall of the same pictures across multiple trials. In Experiments 1A and 1B, kindergarteners did not become underconfident with practice, whereas third graders did. In Experiment 2, first-graders did not exhibit the UWP effect even with an additional two trials. Correlational analyses suggested that memory for past test influences 3rd graders' predictions but did not consistently influence younger children's predictions. These findings implicate the role of the memory-for-past-test heuristic in the UWP effect and suggest that this metamemory illusion arises with maturation or schooling experiences. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)
Psychology Press. Available from: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 325 Chestnut Street Suite 800, Philadelphia, PA 19106. Tel: 800-354-1420; Fax: 215-625-2940; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 3; Kindergarten
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Ohio