NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ961806
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011
Pages: 14
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 29
ISSN: ISSN-0885-985X
Middle School Students' Views on the United States Pledge of Allegiance
Martin, Leisa A.
Journal of Social Studies Research, v35 n2 p245-258 Fall 2011
Although the United States Pledge of Allegiance is a ritual in many schools, research on middle school students' views about this tradition is limited. Therefore, this grounded theory study included a survey of 100 middle school students on the Pledge with 33 follow-up interviews. Socialization and counter-socialization served as the theoretical framework for the study. The data were analyzed via the open coding, axial coding, and selective coding aspects of the grounded theory methodology (Creswell, 1998). The results displayed similar responses based on gender; however, in terms of race or ethnicity, this study showed different results compared to previous research (Rider-Hawkins, 1992). While the majority of the students in this study emphasized loyalty to the nation, this study also emphasized a desire by some of the middle school students' to have more instruction about the Pledge.
International Society for the Social Studies. University of Central Florida College of Education, Suite 123M P.O. Box 161250, Orlando, FL 32816. e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 6; Grade 8; Middle Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: United States