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ERIC Number: EJ960769
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011
Pages: 7
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1559-5676
Offer versus Serve or Serve Only: Does Service Method Affect Elementary Children's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption?
Goggans, Margaret Harbison; Lambert, Laurel; Chang, Yunhee
Journal of Child Nutrition & Management, v35 n2 Fall 2011
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of the Offer versus Serve (OVS) provision in the National School Lunch Program would result in a significant difference in fruit and vegetable consumption by fourth and fifth grade elementary students, and in plate waste cost. Methods: Weighed and visual plate waste data were collected for five consecutive days at two elementary schools. School A used serve only service (SO), serving students all five food components of the lunch meal, and School B used the OVS provision, allowing students to select as few as three of the five food components of the lunch meal. Food waste costs were determined using an average cost from invoices. Differences in consumption of fruits and vegetables, cost, and plate waste data were analyzed. Results: Fruit and vegetable plate waste was significantly lower (p less than 0.05) in the school using the OVS compared to the school using SO. Plate waste cost per student also showed significant difference (p less than 0.01), with a $0.03 cost per student in the school using OVS and a $0.07 cost per student in the school using SO. However, this study showed no significant difference in fruit and vegetable consumption comparing consumption of all students participating in each of the two service methods. Application to Child Nutrition Professionals: This study provides useful data for school nutrition program directors when deciding on the use of SO versus OVS in elementary schools. (Contains 3 tables.)
School Nutrition Association. 120 Waterfront Street Suite 300, National Harbor, MD 20745. Tel: 301-686-3100; Fax: 301-686-3115; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 4; Grade 5
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Mississippi