ERIC Number: EJ960523
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012-Feb
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 37
Critical Thinking as Culture: Teaching Post-Soviet Teachers in Kazakhstan
Burkhalter, Nancy; Shegebayev, Maganat R.
International Review of Education, v58 n1 p55-72 Feb 2012
This paper explores the question of whether critical thinking can eventually become part of the cultural fabric in Kazakhstan, a country whose Soviet educational system not only trained teachers to memorise, lecture and intimidate students but also created a culture in educational institutions fraught with many fear-based behaviours engendering competitiveness, intolerance and other hostile behaviours antithetical to critical thinking and an open, democratic society. While educational reform can have profound effects on a nation, education is but one system in a complex network of governmental and cultural systems, and change must be borne by many. This paper reviews literature and presents qualitative data gathered through interviews with Soviet-trained teachers. The authors recommend that teachers should embrace student-centred techniques and critical thinking methodologies, as well as shift from a fear-based, authoritarian, top-down system of relating to students and colleagues to one of cooperation, openness and fairness. Such a reform will take repetitive, intensive and experiential training as well as regular assessments of progress.
Descriptors: Democracy, Social Change, Social Systems, Educational Change, Foreign Countries, Critical Thinking, Fear, Thinking Skills, Skill Development, Teaching Methods, Rote Learning, Interviews, Teacher Attitudes, Student Centered Curriculum, Authoritarianism, Teacher Education, Teaching Experience
Springer. 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013. Tel: 800-777-4643; Tel: 212-460-1500; Fax: 212-348-4505; e-mail: email@example.com; Web site: http://www.springerlink.com
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Kazakhstan