NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ960248
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012-Apr
Pages: 19
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 35
ISSN: ISSN-0013-1644
A Demonstration of the Impact of Outliers on the Decisions about the Number of Factors in Exploratory Factor Analysis
Liu, Yan; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Wu, Amery D.
Educational and Psychological Measurement, v72 n2 p181-199 Apr 2012
Previous studies have rarely examined the impact of outliers on the decisions about the number of factors to extract in an exploratory factor analysis. The few studies that have investigated this issue have arrived at contradictory conclusions regarding whether outliers inflated or deflated the number of factors extracted. By systematically inducing outliers as well as computer simulations based on real data, the present study demonstrated how outliers affected the decisions about the number of factors to extract using four commonly used and/or recommended decision methods. The studies revealed that both inflation and deflation of the number of factors were found, but the effect depended on (a) the decision methods used and (b) the magnitude and amount of outliers, hence resolving the apparent contradictory conclusions in the previous literature. (Contains 1 note, 6 tables and 3 figures.)
SAGE Publications. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A