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ERIC Number: EJ960001
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012
Pages: 17
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 45
ISSN: ISSN-0218-8791
Determinants of Participation and Expenditure Patterns of Private Tuition Received by Primary School Students in Penang, Malaysia: An Exploratory Study
Jelani, Juliana; Tan, Andrew K. G.
Asia Pacific Journal of Education, v32 n1 p35-51 2012
In this exploratory study, the censored Tobit model is applied on primary data collected amongst parents of primary school students in Penang, Malaysia to examine the determinants of participation and expenditures on private tuition (PT). Results of the marginal effects indicate that socio-demographic characteristics--ethnicity, household income, level of schooling, and marital status--affect the probability of participation and its corresponding conditional (amongst those whose spending is positive) and unconditional (overall) expenditures. Specifically, compared to ethnic Malays, households of Chinese and Indian descent are more likely to send their children to PT, whilst spending more on conditional and unconditional expenditures, "ceteris paribus." Low-income households have a lower likelihood to enrol their children in PT classes and spend less on conditional and unconditional expenditures than higher income households. Upper primary students are more likely to attend PT and spend more on conditional and unconditional expenditures than lower primary students. Single-parent households spend more on conditional and unconditional expenditures than households where both parents are together, all else equal. Based on these findings, several observations in terms of comparisons to other studies and policy implications are noted vis-a-vis the demand for PT amongst primary school students. (Contains 4 tables and 3 notes.)
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Malaysia