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ERIC Number: EJ959017
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 31
Teachers' Use of Motivational Utterances in Special Education in Norwegian Compulsory Schooling. A Contribution Aimed at Fostering an Inclusive Education for Pupils with Learning Difficulties?
International Journal of Special Education, v26 n3 p248-259 2011
This observational study illustrates how teachers' use of motivational utterances is expressed to pupils with learning difficulties in special education in Norwegian compulsory schooling. The term motivational utterances refers to teacher utterances that can help increase pupils' expectancy of success and task value. Video recordings were made of teachers in special education who were deemed to be proficient in motivating pupils. The results indicate that methods used by teachers to improve pupils' expectancy of success in a subject can be divided into six categories: subject-affirmative praise, subject-oriented behavioral praise, subject-detailed praise, existing knowledge, pupil emphasis and challenging utterances. The results also indicate that the methods used by teachers to increase pupils' task value can be grouped into seven categories: pupil involvement, choice, justification, enthusiasm, downplaying the degree of difficulty, utility value and reward. These categories can raise awareness and serve as inspiration for other teachers, which in turn may foster learning among pupils with learning difficulties. Consequently, the categories and the use of motivational utterances are able to contribute to a differentiated and inclusive education.
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Student Motivation, Special Education, Classroom Communication, Positive Reinforcement, Classification, Elementary School Teachers, Secondary School Teachers, Grade 4, Grade 6, Elementary School Students, Secondary School Students
International Journal of Special Education. 2889 Highbury Street, Vancouver, BC V6R 3T7, Canada. Web site: http://www.internationaljournalofspecialeducation.com
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Elementary Secondary Education; Grade 4; Grade 6; Secondary Education
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Norway