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ERIC Number: EJ957190
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012-Mar
Pages: 26
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 99
ISSN: ISSN-0926-7220
Teaching and Learning Science in Hungary, 1867-1945: Schools, Personalities, Influences
Frank, Tibor
Science & Education, v21 n3 p355-380 Mar 2012
The article provides an overview of the development of teaching science in Hungary during both the time of the dual monarchy and the newly established independent Hungary after 1920. The integration of Hungary into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (1867-1918) strengthened the effect of German speaking European science, the results of which were quickly channelled into the Hungarian school system at all levels. The Hungarian Academy as well as the University of Budapest (today Eotvos Lorand University) played a leading role in the "nationalization" of European science in the educational system. Scientific developments in Hungary strengthened the position of rational and secular thinking in a highly religious society and contributed to the erosion of the mental power of the church tradition, particularly that of the Roman Catholic Church. Toward World War I, influenced by the Protestant Churches, the Jewish tradition, and agnosticism, the public picture of science became more international, occasionally ready to consider challenges of the accepted world view, and sometimes less dogmatic. Leading Hungarian figures with an international reputation who played a decisive role in making science part of Hungarian thinking included the physicists Baron Lorand Eotvos and Sandor Mikola, the mathematicians Laszlo Racz and George Polya as well as a host of others in related fields. Emigration, mostly Jewish, after World War I, contributed to the curtailment of efforts to teach science effectively as some of the best people left Hungary for, mostly, Germany, Britain, and the United States. However, the interwar school system, the Hungarian version of the German "Gymnasium," continued to disseminate scientific thought in Hungarian education. Much of the information was foreign and appeared simply in translation--but an impressive array of indigeneous scientific results paved the way to a larger educated middle class then in the making.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Hungary