ERIC Number: EJ950022
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2006-Nov
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
A Pediatric Twin Study of Brain Morphometry
Wallace, Gregory L.; Schmitt, J. Eric; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Viding, Essi; Ordaz, Sarah; Rosenthal, Michael A.; Molloy, Elizabeth A.; Clasen, Liv S.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Neale, Michael C.; Giedd, Jay N.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, v47 n10 p987-993 Nov 2006
Background: Longitudinal pediatric neuroimaging studies have demonstrated increasing volumes of white matter and regionally-specific inverted U shaped developmental trajectories of gray matter volumes during childhood and adolescence. Studies of monozygotic and dyzygotic twins during this developmental period allow exploration of genetic and non-genetic influences on these developmental trajectories. Method: Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans were acquired on a pediatric sample of 90 monozygotic twin pairs, 38 same-sex dyzygotic twin pairs, and 158 unrelated typically developing singletons. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the additive genetic, common environment, and unique environment effects, as well as age by heritability interactions, on measures of brain volumes from these images. Results: Consistent with previous adult studies, additive genetic effects accounted for a substantial portion of variability in nearly all brain regions with the notable exception of the cerebellum. Significant age by heritability interactions were observed with gray matter volumes showing a reduction in heritability with increasing age, while white matter volume heritability increased with greater age. Conclusion: Understanding the relative contributions of genetic and nongenetic factors on developmental brain trajectories may have implications for better understanding brain-based disorders and typical cognitive development.
Descriptors: Twins, Structural Equation Models, Neurological Organization, Genetics, Brain, Cognitive Development, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Diagnostic Tests, Child Development, Adolescent Development, Environmental Influences, Age Differences, Interaction
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A