ERIC Number: EJ949749
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2007-Jan
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
Early Adolescent Outcomes of Institutionally-Deprived and Non-Deprived Adoptees. II: Language as a Protective Factor and a Vulnerable Outcome
Croft, Carla; Beckett, Celia; Rutter, Michael; Castle, Jenny; Colvert, Emma; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Kreppner, Jana; Stevens, Suzanne E.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, v48 n1 p31-44 Jan 2007
Background: There is uncertainty about the extent to which language skills are part of general intelligence and even more uncertainty on whether deprivation has differential effects on language and non-language skills. Methods: Language and cognitive outcomes at 6 and 11 years of age were compared between a sample of 132 institution-reared Romanian children adopted into UK families under the age of 42 months, and a sample of 49 children adopted within the UK under the age of 6 months who had not experienced either institutional rearing or profound deprivation. Results: The effects of institutional deprivation were basically similar for language and cognitive outcomes at age 6; in both there were few negative effects of deprivation if it ended before the age of 6 months and there was no linear association with duration of deprivation within the 6 to 42 month range. For the children over 18 months on arrival (range 18-42 months), the presence of even very minimal language skills (imitation of speech sounds) at the time of arrival was a strong beneficial prognostic factor for language and cognitive outcomes, but not for social/emotional/behavioural outcomes. Individual variations in adoptive parent characteristics were unrelated to differences in language or cognitive outcomes, possibly as a consequence of the limited variability in the adoptive family group. Conclusions: Minimal language probably indexes some form of cognitive reserve that, in turn, indexes the degree of institutional deprivation.
Descriptors: Disadvantaged, Early Adolescents, Language Skills, Disadvantaged Environment, Adoption, Residential Institutions, Child Rearing, Intelligence, Cognitive Ability, Foreign Countries, Children, Correlation, Social Development, Emotional Development, Comparative Analysis
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Romania; United Kingdom