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ERIC Number: EJ948344
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011
Pages: 20
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 22
ISSN: ISSN-0098-9495
Money for Music Education: A District Analysis of the How, What, and Where of Spending for Music Education
Fermanich, Mark L.
Journal of Education Finance, v37 n2 p130-149 Fall 2011
Evidence suggests that accountability and financial pressures are causing schools across the country to reduce investments in subject areas that are not assessed for accountability purposes. However, due to the design of financial reporting systems in most states, inadequate data are available to analyze spending levels and patterns for specific subject areas that may help to shed light on the magnitude and ramifications of these actions. This article presents the findings of an in-depth analysis of expenditures for music education programs in a large suburban school district by breaking down the spending for music programs by school, object, and program area--such as general, instrumental, or choral music. The findings show district expenditures for music instruction comprised only about 1.6% of the district's total operating budget. The source of most spending for music, 90%, was the district's general fund. Nearly 90% of spending was for instructional staff salaries and benefits. While per pupil spending varied significantly from school to school, student characteristics such as poverty or minority status had little influence on this variation. Instead, factors such as total school spending, teacher education and experience, and music participation drove differences in school spending levels. (Contains 9 tables and 7 footnotes.)
University of Illinois Press. 1325 South Oak Street, Champaign, IL 61820-6903. Tel: 217-244-0626; Fax: 217-244-8082; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A