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ERIC Number: EJ947089
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011
Pages: 12
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 11
ISSN: ISSN-0964-5292
School Grading and Institutional Contexts
Dardanoni, Valentino; Modica, Salvatore; Pennisi, Aline
Education Economics, v19 n5 p475-486 2011
We study how the relationship between students' cognitive ability and their school grades depends on institutional contexts. In a simple abstract model, we show that unless competence standards are set at above-school level or the variation of competence across schools is low, students' competence valuation will be heterogeneous, with weaker schools inflating grades or flattening their dependence on competence, therefore reducing the information content and comparability of school grades. Using data from the OECD-PISA 2003 Survey, the model is applied to a sample of four countries, namely Australia, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands. We find that in Australia, schools' heterogeneity does not affect grading practices; in the other countries, grades are inflated in weaker schools, uniformly in Germany and the Netherlands, to a larger extent for weaker students in Italy. (Contains 7 notes, 2 tables, and 2 figures.)
Routledge. Available from: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 325 Chestnut Street Suite 800, Philadelphia, PA 19106. Tel: 800-354-1420; Fax: 215-625-2940; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Australia; Germany; Italy; Netherlands
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Program for International Student Assessment