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ERIC Number: EJ946270
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011
Pages: 18
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 61
ISSN: ISSN-0155-0640
Beyond ENL Norms in ELF Use: A Cognitive Perspective on ELF Output
Alptekin, Cem
Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, v34 n2 p148-165 2011
This article presents a cognitively-oriented account of the qualitative differences between ENL (English as a native language) and ELF (English as a lingua franca) users. Based on the declarative-procedural model of second language acquisition, it examines the linguistic and sociolinguistic implications of ELF users' dependence on their declarative memory system, with its corresponding explicit knowledge and controlled processes of cognition subserving the production of their output in English. In contrast, it points to ENL speakers' output being sustained by both their procedural and declarative memory systems, with their corresponding implicit and explicit knowledge types that interact through automatic and controlled processes. Given the differences in the underlying cognitive resources and processes in output production, it concludes that the prevailing practice of assessing ELF users' output in relation to ENL norms is simply irrelevant. (Contains 4 endnotes.)
Applied Linguistics Association of Australia. e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A