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ERIC Number: EJ946047
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011-Sep
Pages: 10
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 44
ISSN: ISSN-0021-9010
Samples in Applied Psychology: Over a Decade of Research in Review
Shen, Winny; Kiger, Thomas B.; Davies, Stacy E.; Rasch, Rena L.; Simon, Kara M.; Ones, Deniz S.
Journal of Applied Psychology, v96 n5 p1055-1064 Sep 2011
This study examines sample characteristics of articles published in "Journal of Applied Psychology" ("JAP") from 1995 to 2008. At the individual level, the overall median sample size over the period examined was approximately 173, which is generally adequate for detecting the average magnitude of effects of primary interest to researchers who publish in "JAP". Samples using higher units of analyses (e.g., teams, departments/work units, and organizations) had lower median sample sizes ("Mdn" [approximately equal to] 65), yet were arguably robust given typical multilevel design choices of "JAP" authors despite the practical constraints of collecting data at higher units of analysis. A substantial proportion of studies used student samples ([image omitted]40%); surprisingly, median sample sizes for student samples were smaller than working adult samples. Samples were more commonly occupationally homogeneous ([image omitted]70%) than occupationally heterogeneous. U.S. and English-speaking participants made up the vast majority of samples, whereas Middle Eastern, African, and Latin American samples were largely unrepresented. On the basis of study results, recommendations are provided for authors, editors, and readers, which converge on 3 themes: (a) appropriateness and match between sample characteristics and research questions, (b) careful consideration of statistical power, and (c) the increased popularity of quantitative synthesis. Implications are discussed in terms of theory building, generalizability of research findings, and statistical power to detect effects. (Contains 6 footnotes, 3 tables, and 1 figure.)
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: United States