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ERIC Number: EJ945918
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2007-Jul
Pages: 15
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 64
ISSN: ISSN-0021-9010
Working Hard and Working Smart: Motivation and Ability during Typical and Maximum Performance
Klehe, Ute-Christine; Anderson, Neil
Journal of Applied Psychology, v92 n4 p978-992 Jul 2007
The distinction between what people "can" do (maximum performance) and what they "will" do (typical performance) has received considerable theoretical but scant empirical attention in industrial-organizational psychology. This study of 138 participants performing an Internet-search task offers an initial test and verification of P. R. Sackett, S. Zedeck, and L. Fogli's (1988) model of typical versus maximum performance: Motivation--in the form of direction, level, and persistence of effort exerted--rose significantly under the maximum performance condition. Consequently, the correlation between motivation--in the form of direction and level of effort--and performance diminished, whereas the correlation between ability--in the form of declarative knowledge and procedural skills--and performance increased under the maximum performance condition. Overall, results confirm the general propositions of the model. Implications for the generalizability of these findings, theory, practice, and directions for future studies of typical and maximum performance are discussed. (Contains 2 footnotes, 4 tables, and 2 figures.)
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A