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ERIC Number: EJ945764
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011
Pages: 25
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 78
ISSN: ISSN-0141-1926
Holding Back and Holding behind: Grade Retention and Students' Non-Academic and Academic Outcomes
Martin, Andrew J.
British Educational Research Journal, v37 n5 p739-763 2011
The present study examined the implications of grade retention (repeating a grade) and social promotion (automatic promotion to the next grade each year) for high school students' academic and non-academic outcomes. Based on data from 3261 high school students, structural equation modeling demonstrated that, after controlling for interactions with other factors, demographic covariates and ability, there were significant (p less than 0.001) main effects of grade retention. In terms of academic factors, grade retention was a significant "negative" predictor of academic self-concept and homework completion and a significant "positive" predictor of maladaptive motivation and weeks absent from school. In terms of non-academic factors, grade retention was a significant "negative" predictor of self-esteem but was not significantly associated with relationship with peers. In follow-up analyses using a sub-sample of retained (n = 186) and promoted (n = 186) students matched by ability, age and gender, findings were confirmed and with stronger effects on some factors. For nations and systems emphasizing grade retention and for those emphasizing social promotion, findings have implications for educational practice, policy and theories of child and academic development. (Contains 1 note, 2 tables, and 1 figure.)
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: High Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A