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ERIC Number: EJ945336
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011-Sep
Pages: 12
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 47
ISSN: ISSN-0278-7393
Retrieval Experience as a Modifier of Future Encoding: Another Test Effect
Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon; Storm, Benjamin C.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, v37 n5 p1113-1124 Sep 2011
Research on how individuals monitor their level of comprehension during study paints a picture of learners as being insensitive to many of the factors or conditions of learning that can enhance long-term retention and transfer. In previous research, however, deWinstanley and Bjork (2004) demonstrated that learners--if made sensitive to the memorial benefits of generation in the context of an informative test following study of a text passage in which they had encoded both to-be-read and to-be-generated critical items--then became more effective processors of future to-be-read information presented in a 2nd text passage. In Experiments 1 and 2 of the present research, we explored the potential applicability of this effect by testing whether it could survive certain types of activity-filled delays. In Experiments 3 and 4, we tested whether enhanced processing of contextual information, an encoding strategy that could possibly have been discovered by participants during the testing episode for the 1st text passage, was a potential underlying cause of this effect. Together, our results bring to light an additional benefit of test taking and point to what might be considered necessary and sufficient conditions for leading learners to become more effective processors of future to-be-learned information. (Contains 2 tables.)
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: California