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ERIC Number: EJ943630
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011-Oct
Pages: 6
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 14
ISSN: ISSN-0031-7217
Improve Relationships to Improve Student Performance
Arum, Richard
Phi Delta Kappan, v93 n2 p8-13 Oct 2011
Attempts to raise student performance have focused primarily on either relationships between adults in the system or formal curriculum. Relatively ignored has been a focus on what sociologists believe is the primary relationship of consequence for student outcomes--authority relationships between students and educators. Successful school reform is akin to baking a cake: Many ingredients are needed to yield the desired outcome. An important component requires a school climate that is safe and orderly. Absent this, other school-level reforms will be ineffective.
Phi Delta Kappa International. 408 North Union Street, P.O. Box 789, Bloomington, IN 47402. Tel: 800-766-1156; Fax: 812-339-0018; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A