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ERIC Number: EJ941752
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011-Mar
Pages: 14
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
ISSN: ISSN-1363-755X
False-Belief Understanding in 2.5-Year-Olds: Evidence From Violation-of-Expectation Change-of-Location and Unexpected-Contents tasks
He, Zijing; Bolz, Matthias; Baillargeon, Renee
Developmental Science, v14 n2 p292-305 Mar 2011
Until recently, it was generally assumed that the ability to attribute false beliefs did not emerge until about 4 years of age. However, recent reports using spontaneous- as opposed to elicited-response tasks have suggested that this ability may be present much earlier. To date, researchers have employed two kinds of spontaneous-response false-belief tasks: violation-of-expectation tasks have been used with infants in the second year of life, and anticipatory-looking tasks have been used with toddlers in the third year of life. In the present research, 2.5-year-old toddlers were tested in violation-of-expectation tasks involving a change-of-location situation (Experiment 1) and an unexpected-contents situation (Experiment 2). Results were positive in both situations, providing the first demonstrations of false-belief understanding in toddlers using violation-of-expectation tasks and, as such, pointing to a consistent and continuous picture of early false-belief understanding.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A