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ERIC Number: EJ941390
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011-Sep
Pages: 9
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 0
ISSN: ISSN-1073-5836
Fluency with Basic Addition
Garza-Kling, Gina
Teaching Children Mathematics, v18 n2 p80-88 Sep 2011
Traditionally, learning basic facts has focused on rote memorization of isolated facts, typically through the use of flash cards, repeated drilling, and timed testing. However, as many experienced teachers have seen, "drill alone does not develop mastery of single-digit combinations." In contrast, a fluency approach to learning basic addition facts places a focus on developing and using mathematical strategies, with the goal of finding efficient, effective ways to apply "known" facts to "derive" unknown facts. Applying known facts to derive unknown facts results in efficiency, flexibility, and an understanding of number combinations for young students. In this article, the author describes strategies that fluent students use and outlines several engaging activities that will allow students to acquire the most critical basic facts through experience. (Contains 2 figures and 1 table.)
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. 1906 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191-1502. Tel: 800-235-7566; Tel: 703-620-3702; Fax: 703-476-2970; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Early Childhood Education; Elementary Education
Audience: Teachers
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A