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ERIC Number: EJ941362
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011
Pages: 34
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 0
ISSN: ISSN-0161-6463
Honoring Native American Code Talkers: The Road to the Code Talkers Recognition Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-420)
Meadows, William C.
American Indian Culture and Research Journal, v35 n3 p3-36 2011
Interest in North American Indian code talkers continues to increase. In addition to numerous works about the Navajo code talkers, several publications on other groups of Native American code talkers--including the Choctaw, Comanche, Hopi, Meskwaki, Canadian Cree--and about code talkers in general have appeared. This article chronicles recent tribal, state, and congressional legislative efforts to identify and recognize Native American code talkers. Although the Navajo received congressional recognition in 2001, they were not the first code talkers in either world war. More than twenty other tribes served as code talkers during World War I and World War II, yet only recently received official recognition from the US government. Over the past few years, legislative bills seeking recognition for non-Navajo Native American code talkers have been known under several related names but have failed to pass in both the House and the Senate. After several years of efforts by dedicated tribal delegations, state senators, state representatives, and scholars, federal legislation to recognize all non-Navajo Native American code talkers was finally achieved when House, Senate, and presidential approval were finally garnered in the 110th Congress in September and October of 2008. (Contains 10 figures, 1 table, and 69 notes.)
American Indian Studies Center at UCLA. 3220 Campbell Hall, Box 951548, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1548. Tel: 310-825-7315; Fax: 310-206-7060; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A