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ERIC Number: EJ940370
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012-Jan
Pages: 12
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-0738-0593
Democratization of Secondary Education in Malaysia: Emerging Problems and Challenges of Educational Reform
Sua, Tan Yao
International Journal of Educational Development, v32 n1 p53-64 Jan 2012
The democratization of education in Malaysia has come a long way since the early 1960s. In the early 1990s, the government decided to democratize secondary education in order to widen formal access to secondary education, especially at the upper secondary level. It is the contention of this paper that the widening of formal access to education may not lead to real access to education if effective measures are not put in place. It is also the contention of this paper that the democratization of education that leads to the massification of education or mass education should not be at the expense of educational quality and excellence if it wants to have a more significant impact on the actual outcomes of schooling. This paper is divided into two parts. The first part provides the background information on educational expansion that stems from the democratization of secondary education such as enrolment rates, number of schools and teachers as well as organizational adjustments. The second part examines the problems and challenges of the democratization of secondary education in relation to issues such as diverse needs of students, disciplinary problems, school dropouts, urban and rural disparity, preferential policy and educational quality and excellence. All these issues have an impact on the desirable outcomes of the democratization of secondary education as far as real access to education as well as equality and quality of education are concerned.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Malaysia