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ERIC Number: EJ936764
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011-May
Pages: 5
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 14
ISSN: ISSN-0021-9584
A Missing Deduction of the Clausius Equality and Inequality
Nieto, Rafael; Gonzalez, Celina; Jimenez, Angel; Lopez, Ignacio; Rodriguez, Javier
Journal of Chemical Education, v88 n5 p597-601 May 2011
The two main statements of the second law of thermodynamics were given by Clausius, and Kelvin and Planck. Other statements followed well into the 20th century. It is known that the two main statements are not exactly equivalent, although their differences may never show outside academic environments or very specific areas of science. At negative absolute temperatures, a phenomenon studied mainly in connection to the constitution of matter and to its behavior under specific electromagnetic conditions, the non-equivalence of the two major statements, appears. Whereas the Kelvin-Planck statement must be modified to remain true, the Clausius statement remains true unaltered. This article proposes a deduction of the Clausius equality and inequality from the Clausius statement only, thus, inheriting its validity in the domain of negative absolute temperatures. The deduction developed here uses a simple arrangement of Carnot engines and a conceptualization of a system with very loose constraints. As a result, the level of generality achieved is high and includes both positive and negative absolute temperatures. (Contains 2 figures.)
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A