ERIC Number: EJ936322
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
All Intimate Grammars Leak: Reflections on "Indian Languages in Unexpected Places"
Kroskrity, Paul V.
American Indian Culture and Research Journal, v35 n2 p161-172 2011
In this discussion of a set of studies that fits the trope of "Indian Languages in Unexpected Places," I explore the obvious necessity of developing a relevant notion of linguistic "leakage" following a famous image from the writings of the linguistic anthropologist Edward Sapir. Though in its original use, the concept applied more to the order of linguistic form, my recontextualized application explores it as a sensitizing image that can assist in developing a relevant notion of leakage to the practices of speakers involving both their linguistic repertoires and their repertoires of identity. In order to appreciate the interplay of structure and agency in representations of Native American language use, I suggest the utility of recognizing the potency of concepts like DuBois (1903) "double consciousness" but also emphasize the need to interrogate "expectation" as the result of massive social inequality. Seeing expectations of Native failure, deficiency, and inadequacy as tied to the historical use of oppressive "force" in a Gramscian sense, and the more recent product of hegemonic institutions like the Bureau of Indian Affairs and boarding schools as well as the mass media, allows us to understand the political economic basis for linguistic domination. The impact of dominant language ideologies of "contempt" for minority languages, of ideologies that condemn linguistic hybridity and denigrate multilingual adaptations, is also explored through a discussion of case studies. (Contains 29 notes.)
Descriptors: Language Dominance, Boarding Schools, Grammar, American Indians, American Indian Education, Multilingualism, Ideology, Mass Media, American Indian Languages, Anthropology, Social Differences, Political Influences, Federal Indian Relationship, Language Minorities, Case Studies, American Indian History
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A