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ERIC Number: EJ936017
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011
Pages: 7
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 40
ISSN: ISSN-1930-4595
Effect of Learning Activity on Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels and Effort/Persistence
Gao, Zan; Lee, Amelia M.; Xiang, Ping; Kosma, Maria
ICHPER-SD Journal of Research, v6 n1 p27-33 Spr-Sum 2011
The type of learning activity offered in physical education may influence students' motivational beliefs, physical activity participation and effort/persistence in class. However, most empirical studies have focused on the individual level rather than on the learner-content interactions. Accordingly, the potential effects of learning activities on these outcome variables have been overlooked. This study examined whether students' motivational beliefs (self-efficacy and outcome expectancy), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and effort/persistence in physical education classes varied as a function of learning activity (soccer vs. fitness). Participants were 225 students (112 boys, 113 girls) in grades 6-8 from a suburban public school in the Southeastern region of the U.S. Each of the three grade levels incorporated three classes, and 25 participants were randomly selected from each class. Students responded to questionnaires measuring their self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and perceived effort/persistence toward soccer and fitness classes, respectively. Students' MVPA in soccer and fitness classes were measured via Actical accelerometers. The results revealed that students reported higher scores in self-efficacy and outcome expectancy toward fitness than they did toward soccer. However, students exhibited higher MVPA in the soccer classes. Regression analyses yielded that only self-efficacy significantly predicted MVPA, while both self-efficacy and outcome expectancy emerged as predictors of effort/persistence across learning activities. The findings may have significant implications for educational practice. For example, physical educators must consider psychological and physical effects that different learning activities may have on students when designing and implementing physical education programs. (Contains 2 tables.)
International Council for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport, and Dance. 1900 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191. Tel: 703-476-3462; Fax: 703-476-9527; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 6; Grade 7; Grade 8; Middle Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A