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ERIC Number: EJ935951
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011-Sep
Pages: 15
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 58
ISSN: ISSN-0007-1013
Developing an Instrument to Measure Social Presence in Distance Higher Education
Kim, JungJoo
British Journal of Educational Technology, v42 n5 p763-777 Sep 2011
This paper examines the construct of social presence and develops an instrument to measure social presence in distance higher education. Social presence is regarded as an important factor to understand psychological and emotional relations among distant learners, especially when constructivism and discourse based learning are emphasised. Items initially drawn from the literature were reviewed by experts in relevant fields and extracted through exploratory and confirmatory analyses. Then correlation analysis was executed to see the relationship between social presence and other learning variables. As a result, this study confirmed four factor constructs of social presence: mutual attention and support, affective connectedness, sense of community and open communication, and also generated and verified a social presence instrument with a total of 19 items.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A