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ERIC Number: EJ934177
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011
Pages: 17
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 27
ISSN: ISSN-0260-1370
Raising Expectations or Constructing Victims? Problems with Promoting Social Inclusion through Lifelong Learning
Williams, Joanna
International Journal of Lifelong Education, v30 n4 p451-467 2011
Whilst in government, New Labour defined social exclusion as a state of "disadvantage" resulting from individual psychology: namely, low aspirations, a lack of self-confidence or moral deviancy. Engagement in lifelong learning was considered a means of promoting social inclusion and of overcoming such disadvantage. This policy review explores how such a psychological approach to post-compulsory education impacts upon the more traditional educational and vocational goals of the sector. A critical discourse analysis of relevant government documents as well as interviews with key policy makers, suggests that New Labour's policy may have had the unintended consequence of constructing psychological disadvantage amongst groups defined as socially excluded. A focus upon ameliorating the perceived psychological vulnerabilities of socially excluded groups may risk denying those targeted access to genuine educational provision or may create a culture of dependency upon formal educational institutions. (Contains 1 note.)
Routledge. Available from: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 325 Chestnut Street Suite 800, Philadelphia, PA 19106. Tel: 800-354-1420; Fax: 215-625-2940; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Adult Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: United Kingdom