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ERIC Number: EJ933648
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2005
Pages: 15
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 42
ISSN: ISSN-1087-3414
Reflections on Practice within the Heartland Problem-Solving Model: The Perceived Value of Direct Assessment of Student Needs
Bolt, Sara E.
California School Psychologist, v10 p65-79 2005
Considerable variation exists across response-to-intervention (RTI) approaches. There is currently insufficient research on outcomes associated with these different RTI approaches to inform decision-making. However, school psychologists who are asked to work within an RTI model need guidance to select an approach that has a high likelihood of leading to optimal student outcomes. This article describes, illustrates, and supports two aspects of the RTI approach used at the Heartland Area Education Agency, from the perspective of a practicing school psychologist. These two aspects include (a) intervention selection that is based on an individualized problem analysis, and (b) the identification of specific instructional needs as a part of the special education eligibility determination process. An analysis of how the Heartland Problem-Solving Model (PSM) was applied to address the needs of a kindergarten student is provided to illustrate these features. Criticisms and challenges associated with the Heartland PSM are noted, along with guidance for future RTI model research and implementation. (Contains 3 figures.)
California Association of School Psychologists. 1020 12th Street Suite 200, Sacramento, CA 95814. Tel: 916-444-1595; Fax: 916-444-1597; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Early Childhood Education; Kindergarten
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Iowa; Minnesota; Pennsylvania
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)