ERIC Number: EJ933336
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011
Reference Count: 25
Qualifications Frameworks: Implementation and Impact in Botswana
Tau, Daniel; Modesto, Stanslaus T.
Journal of Education and Work, v24 n3-4 p359-373 2011
A growing number of countries are introducing qualification frameworks (QFs) following a common definition of outcomes, level descriptors, and a set of occupational or knowledge fields. Botswana has been no exception to this trend. The passing of the Vocational Training Act (1998) led to the creation of the Botswana National Vocational Qualifications Framework (BNVQF). Prior to that, there had been no QF. It is noteworthy that even to date, there is no inclusive national qualifications framework (NQF) in place. Typically, an NQF would include all forms of learning at all levels. The BNVQF is best conceptualized as a sectoral QF on account of its sole focus on vocational education and training (VET). It stands on its own without any links to general and higher education. The present study, the first of its kind to reflect on the three phases of the QF (introduction, capacity building and implementation), investigates the progress of the QF to date. This is accomplished by critically examining evidence, thereby establishing the extent to which aspirations and claims have been met. The Government of Botswana has had a policy on VET and training since independence. The Department of Vocational Education and Training (DVET), within the Ministry of Education, played a coordinating role without any framework to guide it. Training providers and industry did not have any binding relationship, and training was largely institution-based. The creation of the BNVQF arose from a belief by the Government that there was a mismatch between acquired skills and needs dictated by economic circumstances. The present study, therefore, aims in part to establish the extent to which the new QF is capable of addressing the perceived need. A distinction is made between rhetoric about the suitability of a framework and what it actually achieves in real time and environment. The research conducted in the Botswana scenario had two aims in mind, the first one being to capture the structure of the new BNVQF as reflected in documentary evidence and from observation. The second was to critically examine the sustainability of the framework by looking at the initiation, capacity building, implementation and evaluation stages. Evaluation of the QF will encapsulate both positive and negative evidence of its impact. Discussion will reflect what is typical and distinctive about the BNVQF.
Descriptors: Evidence, Qualifications, Program Effectiveness, Foreign Countries, Vocational Education, Program Implementation, National Standards, Educational Policy, Sustainability, Program Attitudes, Stakeholders, Interviews, Organizational Objectives, Position Papers, Educational Development, Barriers
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Adult Education; Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Botswana