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ERIC Number: EJ933168
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009
Pages: 15
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
ISSN: ISSN-0021-8731
An Incomplete History: Representation of American Indians in State Social Studies Standards
Journell, Wayne
Journal of American Indian Education, v48 n2 p18-32 2009
Using an interpretive analysis, American history standards from nine states that incorporate high-stakes assessments in social studies are analyzed for their representation of American Indians. Research on high-stakes assessments shows that teachers are more likely to align their instruction with state standards due to mounting pressure to achieve high scores. Therefore, an understanding of the way that American Indians are represented in state standards may provide a better understanding of how they are then portrayed in the classroom. The findings show that all nine states largely depict American Indians as victimized rather than providing examples of societal contributions made by tribes. Moreover, nearly all the states cease their coverage of American Indians after the forced relocation in the 1830s creating an incomplete narrative. The findings have implications for the historical consciousness of all students and specifically for American Indian students in mainstream public education who may feel disengaged and alienated by the current curriculum.
Center for Indian Education. Arizona State University, College of Education, P.O. Box 871311, Tempe, AZ 95287-1311. Tel: 480-965-6292; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A