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ERIC Number: EJ932515
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011
Pages: 32
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 74
ISSN: ISSN-0737-0008
Blake's Development of the Number Words "One," "Two," and "Three"
Palmer, Alexis; Baroody, Arthur J.
Cognition and Instruction, v29 n3 p265-296 2011
A mother tracked her preschooler's number word development daily from 18 to 49 months of age. Naturalistic observations were supplemented with observations during structured (Kumon) training and microgenetic testing. The boy's everyday use of "two" did not become highly reliable and selective for 10 months (at 28 months), emerged later than that of words representing less abstract concepts, and was used in a relatively abstract manner to describe various visible pairs of items. He quickly generalized "two" to partially visible collections and then those that were not visible. Highly reliable use of "one" and "two" appeared to develop simultaneously, before he started using a plural rule, and before he could put out two items upon request. Reliable and accurate use of number words in everyday situations, particularly child-initiated efforts, preceded such use in the contexts of the Kumon training and microgenetic testing, both of which involved adult-initiated tasks. Educational implications include underscoring differences among the first number words by contrasting, for instance, one with two, and pointing out non-examples of a number ("not two") as well as a wide variety of examples, such as "two blocks, two hands, two socks, two airplanes." (Contains 2 figures, 1 table, and 4 footnotes.)
Routledge. Available from: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 325 Chestnut Street Suite 800, Philadelphia, PA 19106. Tel: 800-354-1420; Fax: 215-625-2940; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Preschool Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
IES Cited: ED544376