ERIC Number: EJ928977
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011-May
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
A Multiple Deficit Model of Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Searching for Shared Cognitive Deficits
McGrath, Lauren M.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Shanahan, Michelle A.; Santerre-Lemmon, Laura E.; Barnard, Holly D.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, v52 n5 p547-557 May 2011
Background: This study tests a multiple cognitive deficit model of reading disability (RD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and their comorbidity. Methods: A structural equation model (SEM) of multiple cognitive risk factors and symptom outcome variables was constructed. The model included phonological awareness as a unique predictor of RD and response inhibition as a unique predictor of ADHD. Processing speed, naming speed, and verbal working memory were modeled as potential shared cognitive deficits. Results: Model fit indices from the SEM indicated satisfactory fit. Closer inspection of the path weights revealed that processing speed was the only cognitive variable with significant unique relationships to RD and ADHD dimensions, particularly inattention. Moreover, the significant correlation between reading and inattention was reduced to non-significance when processing speed was included in the model, suggesting that processing speed primarily accounted for the phenotypic correlation (or comorbidity) between reading and inattention. Conclusions: This study illustrates the power of a multiple deficit approach to complex developmental disorders and psychopathologies, particularly for exploring comorbidities. The theoretical role of processing speed in the developmental pathways of RD and ADHD and directions for future research are discussed.
Descriptors: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Reading Difficulties, Phonological Awareness, Risk, Short Term Memory, Disabilities, Symptoms (Individual Disorders), Cognitive Processes, Psychopathology, Clinical Diagnosis
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A