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ERIC Number: EJ927102
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011-Jun
Pages: 10
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-0028-3932
A Pattern of Perseveration in Cocaine Addiction May Reveal Neurocognitive Processes Implicit in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
Woicik, Patricia A.; Urban, Catherine; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Henry, Ashley; Maloney, Thomas; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.
Neuropsychologia, v49 n7 p1660-1669 Jun 2011
The ability to adapt behavior in a changing environment is necessary for humans to achieve their goals and can be measured in the lab with tests of rule-based switching. Disease models, such as cocaine addiction, have revealed that alterations in dopamine interfere with adaptive set switching, culminating in perseveration. We explore perseverative behavior in individuals with cocaine use disorders (CUD) and healthy controls (CON) during performance of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) (N = 107 in each group). By examining perseverative errors within each of the 6 blocks of the WCST, we uniquely test two forms of set switching that are differentiated by either the presence (extradimensional set shifting (EDS)--first 3 blocks) or absence (task-set switching--last 3 blocks) of new contingency learning. We also explore relationships between perseveration and select cognitive and drug use factors including verbal learning and memory, trait inhibitory control, motivational state, and urine status for cocaine (in CUD). Results indicate greater impairment for CUD than CON on the WCST, even in higher performing CUD who completed all 6 blocks of the WCST. Block by block analysis conducted on completers' scores indicate a tendency for greater perseveration in CUD than CON but only during the first task-set switch; no such deficits were observed during EDS. This task-set switching impairment was modestly associated with two indices of immediate recall (r = -0.32, -0.29) and urine status for cocaine [t (134) = 2.3, p less than 0.03]. By distinguishing these two forms of switching on the WCST, the current study reveals a neurocognitive context (i.e. initial stage of task-set switching) implicit in the WCST that possibly relies upon intact dopaminergic function, but that is impaired in CUD, as associated with worse recall and possibly withdrawal from cocaine. Future studies should investigate whether dopaminergically innervated pathways alone, or in combination with other monoamines, underlie this implicit neurocognitive processes in the WCST. (Contains 3 figures and 2 tables.)
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test