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ERIC Number: EJ925445
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2006
Pages: 6
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 8
ISSN: ISSN-0826-435X
BICS-CALP: An Introduction for Some, a Review for Others
Roessingh, Hetty
TESL Canada Journal, v23 n2 p91-96 2006
Over the past few years, the author has often been invited to speak to various audiences on topics related to the development of English-language proficiency. The audience response and the kinds of questions asked led her to share the framework that she has adopted, some visual representations that illustrate the key concepts embedded in the framework, and some research that supports the use of this framework as helpful in explaining the development of English-language proficiency. This article is a brief introduction for some and a review for others. The author has adopted Cummins' (1982) metaphor of an iceberg to illustrate the Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills-Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (BICS-CALP) continuum, and she has adapted Cummins' original framework to fit better with the iceberg metaphor and the available research. (Contains 3 figures.)
TESL Canada Federation. 408-4370 Dominion Street, Burnaby, BC V5G 4L7, Canada. Tel: 604-298-0312; Fax: 604-298-0372; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A