NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ924797
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011-Jun
Pages: 6
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 19
ISSN: ISSN-1059-8405
Quantifying School Officials' Exposure to Bacterial Pathogens at Graduation Ceremonies Using Repeated Observational Measures
Bishai, David; Liu, Liang; Shiau, Stephanie; Wang, Harrison; Tsai, Cindy; Liao, Margaret; Prakash, Shivaani; Howard, Tracy
Journal of School Nursing, v27 n3 p219-224 Jun 2011
The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of acquiring pathogenic bacteria as a result of shaking hands at graduation ceremonies. School officials participating in graduation ceremonies at elementary, secondary, and postsecondary schools were recruited. Specimens were collected before and immediately following graduation. Cultures identified any pathogenic bacteria in each specimen. Subjects shook a total of 5,209 hands. "Staphylococcus aureus" was separately detected on one pregraduation right hand, one postgraduation right hand, and one postgraduation left hand. Nonpathogenic bacteria were collected in 93% of specimens. Pregraduation and postgraduation specimens were of different strains. We measured a risk of one new bacterial acquisition in a sample exposed to 5,209 handshakes yielding an overall estimate of 0.019 pathogens acquired per handshake. We conclude that a single handshake at a graduation offers only a small risk of bacterial pathogen acquisition. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)
SAGE Publications. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Maryland